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ר

180.400.028.018


_________

_____________.

___________

_____________.

1                    .

2                   

3                   

4                   

4.1

4.2

4.3

4.4            

4.5

5

5.1

5.2


, . , - () .

, .

, , .

1      

1        .

2        .

                        .

                        .

                        ( ).

3        .

4        ( ).


2


1. 1.



1


1

a

l

c

m

∆H

∆T

δ1

δ1

δ2

U

32

130

70

4

1.2

2

2

7

0.3

0.4

900

110


3      

[1, .9]:

, ( 1 )


Q0 = l0h0 , 2;

f0 ;

j , /2.

-


:

. ( 2 )


, . , k = 1.11.2 [1, .10], :


. ( 3 )


k = 1.2. , , 24 [1, .10]. j = 4. f0 0.50.6 [1, .10]. f0 = 0.5.

( 3 ) , :


.


. , :


.


:


; ( 4 )

. ( 5 )


[1, .10]:

, ( 6 )


l ;

Iw ;

U ;

ρ .

:


, ( 7 )


ρ0 t = 0 º, ρ0 = 1.6210-5 ;

α , α = 4,310-3 ºC-1;

t , t = 75 º.


.


[1, .11]:


, ( 8 )

.


( 6 ):


2.


[1, .11]:


, ( 9 )


[1, .18], , -1 :


; ; .


[1, .11]:


2. ( 10 )


[1, .11]:


2. ( 11 )


[1, .12]:


. ( 12 )

, :

.


[1, .12]:


. ( 13 )


[1, .12]:


. ( 14 )


, [1, .12]:


>;

/2 </2.


. [1, .12]:

, ( 15 )


k ;

S .

[1, .13]:

, ( 16 )


k0 0 º, k0 = 1.410-5 /(2º);

β , , β = 510-8 /(2º);

t , t = 75º.

/(2º).


. , , , [1, .13]:

, ( 17 )

2.

( 15 ) :


º.


, , , τ = 80 º, .


4                  

, . 2.

.


( δ1 = δ1 )

, ( 18 )

, ( 19 )

, ( 20 )

, ( 21 )

, ( 22 )

, ( 23 )

, ( 24 )

. ( 25 )


( 18 ) ( 25 ) δ1 = δ1, . 2.

( δ1 = δ1 )

( 18 ) ( 25 ) δ1 = δ1, . 2.


( δ1 = δ1 )

( 18 ) ( 25 ) δ1 = δ1, . 2.


( δ1 = δ1 )


( 18 ) ( 25 ) δ1 = δ1, . 2.


2


δ1

δ1

δ1

δ1

G1,

5.77510-7

8.66310-7

1.73310-6

1.34810-5

G2,

1.04610-8

1.04610-8

1.04610-8

1.04610-8

G3,

6.77310-9

4.51610-9

2.25810-9

2.90310-10

G4,

9.30910-9

1.18210-8

1.61710-8

2.38110-8

G5,

1.25710-9

1.25710-9

1.25710-9

1.25710-9

G6,

1.13810-8

1.53610-8

2.36310-8

4.45210-8

G7,

2.09110-8

2.09110-8

2.09110-8

2.09110-8

Gδ1,

6.98710-7

9.89910-7

1.86810-6

1.36510-5


:


, ( 26 )



:

. ( 27 )

3.

3


δ1

δ1

δ1

δ1

,

5.7410-7

7.5710-7

1.18210-6

2.60310-6


:


. ( 28 )


:

, ( 29 )


gσ ;

x ;

;

l .

() .

; ; .

. 4.


4


δ1

δ1

δ1

δ1

1

1

1

1

1.231

1.175

1.112

1.051

1.307

1.233

1.149

1.068



.

, ( 30 )


F ;

.

, , . :

, ( 31 )

;

;

.

:


( 32 )


, .

, :


, ( 33 )

, .


( 30 )-( 33 ) Mathcad 8. 5-8.

5 δ1 = δ1


0.5

0.7

0.9

1.2

1.4

,

2.66510-4

3.73110-4

4.79710-4

5.3310-4

6.39710-4

7.46310-4

,

0.26

0.364

0.468

0.521

0.625

0.729

, /

0.85

1

1.16

1.27

1.42

1.56

,

3.2810-4

4.59110-4

5.90310-4

6.55910-4

7.87110-4

9.18310-4

,

0.32

0.448

0.576

0.641

0.769

0.897

, /

0.95

1.15

1.35

1.46

1.64

1.89

,

3.48410-4

4.87810-4

6.27210-4

6.96910-4

8.36310-4

9.75610-4

,

0.34

0.476

0.612

0.681

0.817

0.953

, /

0.95

1.17

1.41

1.5

1.73

2.11

F,

512.906

708.72

905.003

1.003103

1.199103

1.398103


6 δ1 = δ1


0.5

0.7

0.9

1.2

1.4

,

3.51510-4

4.92110-4

6.32710-4

7.02910-4

8.43510-4

9.84110-4

,

0.343

0.481

0.618

0.686

0.824

0.961

, /

0.95

1.18

1.42

1.5

1.75

2.12

,

4.12910-4

5.78110-4

7.43210-4

8.25810-4

9.9110-4

1.15610-4

,

0.403

0.565

0.726

0.806

0.968

1.129

, /

1.1

1.33

1.55

1.71

2.13

2.9

,

4.33410-4

6.06710-4

7.80110-4

8.66810-4

1.0410-4

1.21310-4

,

0.423

0.593

0.762

0.846

1.016

1.185

, /

1.12

1.39

1.62

1.79

2.32

3.22

F,

520.358

718.846

916.655

1.017103

1.224103

1.446103


7 δ1 = δ1


0.5

0.7

0.9

1.2

1.4

,

5.48810-4

7.68310-4

9.87810-4

1.09810-3

1.31710-3

1.53710-3

,

0.536

0.75

0.965

1.072

1.286

1.501

, /

1.3

1.6

2.13

2.56

4.15

11.0

,

6.10210-4

8.54310-4

1.09810-3

1.2210-3

1.46510-3

1.70910-3

,

0.596

0.834

1.073

1.192

1.43

1.669

, /

1.35

1.76

2.55

3.25

7.5

20.8

,

6.30710-4

8.8310-4

1.13510-3

1.26110-3

1.51410-3

1.73110-3

,

0.616

0.862

1.109

1.232

1.478

1.69

, /

1.41

1.82

2.8

3.65

9.75

30.30

F,

535.742

741.396

967.739

1.096103

1.493103

2.265103


8 δ1 = δ1


0.1

0.3

0.5

0.7

0.9

,

2.41710-4

7.25210-4

1.20910-3

1.69210-3

1.73110-3

1.73110-3

,

0.236

0.708

1.181

1.652

1.69

1.69

, /

0.8

1.52

3.2

20.2

30.3

30.3

,

2.5210-4

7.62110-4

1.2710-3

1.73110-3

1.73110-3

1.73110-3

,

0.248

0.744

1.24

1.69

1.69

1.69

, /

0.84

1.58

3.72

30.3

30.3

30.3

,

2.58110-4

7.74410-4

1.29110-3

1.73110-3

1.73110-3

1.73110-3

,

0.252

0.756

1.261

1.69

1.69

1.69

, /

0.85

1.6

3.87

30.3

30.3

30.3

F,

136.727

361.367

655.051

2.092103

2.265103

2.265103


5 8 .

3

3, .

i- :


. ( 34 )


.

9.


9


δ1

δ1

δ1

δ1

Է10-4,

4.95

6.45

9.55

14.0

,

0.48

0.63

0.93

1.36

,

1.18

1.44

2.0

5.4

5      

.


, ( 35 )


- , , -

;

- .


5.1           

:


, ( 36 )

L - ;

i - .

:


, ( 37 )


ω - ;

- δ1 = δ1.


.


:


, ( 38 )


F - , F = 10 .


.


( 36 ), :

.


5.2           

, .

:

, ( 39 )


i i- ;

S .


10


δ1

δ1

δ1

δ1

F,

95.21

161.65

354.38

761.58


10 .



4


:


. ( 40 )


, ( 41 )


(F - F)i i- ;

m ;

xi i- .

:


, ( 42 )


a, c ;

ρ , ρ = 7650 κ/3.


.


i- :


, ( 43 )


S -

( 4);

kF, kX , .


11 Si,


δ1 - δ1

δ1 - δ1

δ1 - δ1

Si, 2

450

600

1300

,

93.75

130.43

325

,

0.0073

0.0061

0.0036


11, :


c.


, t t, :

.

  , :

- ;

- ;

- ;

- .

, 928.612 7600 , .

: , 10 .

45 , .

1 .. : . : , 1997. 19 .



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2010
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