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-

-





̻











-



24








. -01-2 ..




. ̠ . .









2006

. , , , . . .

: 1 , .

.

1. . 6

1.1 6

1.2 . 7

1.3 . 8

1.4 . 10

1.5 . 11

1.6 .. 12

1.7 . 12

1.8 . ! .

1.9 . 16

1.10 . 17

2. , . 19

2.1 . ! .

2.2 () ! .

2.3 . ! .

2.4 . ! .

2.5 - . ! .

.. 24









65117

65115

43118

464

68

9

180

150

180

253

0,72


:

- I ;

- ;

- .



















-1

-2

-1 -1

-2 -2

-

-

















1.



1.1



, (1.1)


65117: Lp=300000*1*1*1=300000

65115: Lp=300000

43118: Lp=300000


Li - (), ;

1 - , , 1=1;

2 - , , 2=1;

3 - , - , 3=1.



L1 = L1i K1 K3, (1.2)


L2=L2i K1 K3,


65117: L1=4000*1*1=4000

65115: L1=4000

43118: L1=4000


L1i - -1 , L1i= 4000 ;

K3 = 1 .


65117: L2=16000*1*1=16000

65115: L2=16000

43118: L2=16000


堠 L 2i -2, L2i = 16000.


1.2


, . . , .



, (1.3)


65117: Nc=300000/300000=1

65115: Nc=1

43118: Nc=1


-2

, (1.4)


65117: N2= 300000/16000-1=17,75

65115: N2=17,75

43118: N2=17,75


-1

, (1.5)


65117: N1= 300000/4000-17,75-1=56,25

65115: N1=56,25

43118: N1=56,25


, :

(1.6)


65117: Neoc=300000/180*0,2=333,3333

65115: Neoc=400

43118: Neoc=333,333333


lcc , ;

K- - , K- = 0,1¸0,25.

 

(1.7)


 

65117: Neot=(56,25+17,75)*1,6=118,4

65115: Neot=118,4

43118: Neot=118,4

 

1.3

 


(1.8)


L , (1.9):


65117: η = 32788,8/300000=0,109296

65115: η =0,09108

43118: η =0,109296


L = . lcc α, (1.9)


65117: L =253*180*0,72=32788,8

65115: L =27324

43118: L =32788,8


. ;

α .



, (1.10)


65117: N =333,3333*0,109296*464=16904,45

65115: N =2477,376

43118: N =327,888

Σ: N= 16904,45+ 2477,376+ 327,888= 19709,712


, (1.11)


65117: N =118,4*0,109296*464=6004,46

65115: N =733,303296

43118: N =116,465818

Σ: N =6004,46+733,303296+116,465818=6854,22904


, (1.12)


65117: N1 =56,25*0,109296*464=2852,626

65115: N1 =348,381

43118: N1 = 55,3311

Σ: N1 =2852,626+348,381+55,3311=3256,3377


, (1.13)


65117: N2 =17,75*0,109296*464=900,1619

65115: N2 =109,93356

43118: N2 =17,460036

Σ: N2 = 900,1619+109,93356+17,460036=1027,55545


1.4


, -1 -1, -2 ( , ).

, (1.14)


65117: N-1 =1,4*2852,626+900,1619=4893,838

65115: N-1 =597,66696

43118: N-1 =94,923576

Σ: N-1 =4893,838+597,66696+94,923576=5586,42823


, (1.15)


65117: N-2 =1,3*900,1619=1170,21

65115: N-2 =142,913628

43118: N-2 =22,6980468

Σ: N-2 =1170,21+142,913628+22,6980468=1335,82209


1.5


, (1.16)


65117: N1=2852,626/253=11,2752

65115: N1=1,377

43118: N1=0,2187

Σ: N1=11,2752+1,377+0,2187=12,8709


65117: N2=3,557952

65115: N2=0,43452

43118: N2=0,069012

Σ: N2=3,557952+0,43452+0,069012=4,061484


65117: N=66,816

65115: N=9,792

43118: N=1,296

Σ: N=66,816+9,792+1,296=77,904


65117: N=23,73304

65115: N=2,898432

43118: N=0,4603392

Σ: N=23,73304+2,898432+0,4603392=27,0918144


65117: N-1=19,34323

65115: N-1=2,36232

43118: N-1=0,375192

Σ: N-1=19,34323+2,36232+0,375192=22,080744


65117: N-2=4,625338

65115: N-2=0,564876

43118: N-2=0,0897156

Σ: N-2=4,625338+0,564876+0,0897156=5,2799292


1.6


, , . ( , ), ( ) , .

. , . . .

() . () , , 1215 -1 56 -2. -1 -2 .

. , , , , .

150 400 5-10 , -1 -2 . , -1 -1 -1. -2 .

1.7


1.7.1.


tEO C, t , t1, t2,

, (1.17)


65117: tEO =0,4*1=0,4 -

65115: tEO =0,4 -

43118: tEO =0,4 -

Σ: tEO =0,4+0,4+0,4=1,2 -


, (1.18)


65117: tEO =2*0,4=0,8 -

65115: tEO =0,8 -

43118: tEO =0,8 -

Σ: tEO=0,8+0,8+0,8=2,4 -


, (1.19)


65117: t1 =7,5*1*0,89=6,675 -

65115: t1 =8,925 -

43118: t1 =11,625 -

Σ: t1=6,675+8,925+11,625=27,225 -


, (1.20)


65117: t2=24*1*0,89=21,36 -

65115: t2=28,56 -

43118: t2=37,2 -

Σ: t2=21,36+28,56+37,2=87,12 -


, (1.21)


65117: t -1=0,1*6,675=0,6675 -

65115: t -1=0,8925 -

43118: t -1=1,1625 -

Σ: t -1=0,6675+0,8925+1,1625=2,7225 -


65117: t -2=0,1*21,36=2,136 -

65115: t -2=2,856 -

43118: t -2=3,72 -

Σ: t -2=2,136+2,856+3,72=8,712 -


- , ;

, - -1 -2 , .



, (1.22)


65117: t =5,5*1*1*1*0,89*1=4,895 -

65115: t =6,545 -

43118: t =8,525 -

Σ: t =4,895+6,545+8,525=19,965 -


- , /1000.


1.7.2. ,



.

Ti = Ni ti, - (1.23)


65117: =16904,45*0,4=6761,779 ,

65115: =990,9504 ,

43118: =131,1552 ,

Σ: =6761,779+990,9504+131,1552=7883,8848


65117: =4803,568 ,

65115: =586,642637 ,

43118: =93,1726541 ,

Σ: =4803,568+586,642637+93,1726541=5483,38323 ,


-1, -2


65117: 1 =19041,28

65115: 1 =3109,30043

43118: 1 =643,224038

Σ: 1 =22793,8003


65117: 2 =19227,46

65115: 2 =3139,70247

43118: 2 =649,513339

Σ: 2 =23016,6731


-1, -2


65117: -1 =3266,637

65115: -1 =533,417762

43118: -1 =110,348657

Σ: -1 =3910,40308

65117: -2 =2499,569

65115: -2 =408,161322

43118: -2 =84,4367341

Σ: -1 =2992,1675



, (1.24)

- ;

- ;

- .


65117: =32788,8*464*4,895/1000=74472,55 ,

65115: =12160,8194 ,

43118: =2515,72068 ,

Σ: =89149,0858 ,

1.7.3


, ; (1.25)


: , = 0,15.


= 23284,4097 ;


1.8 ()


(), .

( ) .

.

1.


1.9


()


, (1.31)


, , , ;

, ,

= 2070 ,

= 1830 - .

1.1


1.1

.

*

-1 -1 *

-2 *

-2 *



, *

, *

Pti,

Pti ,







*

%

*

%





1













1,1

(+)

13367,3








13367,3

2070

6,45762

6

1,2

-1 -1


26704,2







26704,2

2070

12,9006

13

1,3

-2



23016,7






23016,7

2070

11,1192

11

1,4

-2




2992,17





2992,17

2070

1,44549

1

1,5





89149,1

100







2





32985,2

37



32985,2

2070

15,9349

16

2,1





9806,4

11



9806,4

2070

4,73739

5

2,2





6240,44

7



6240,44

2070

3,0147

3

2,3

-





8914,91

10



8914,91

2070

4,30672

4

2,4





4457,45

5



4457,45

2070

2,15336

2

2,5





1782,98

2



1782,98

2070

0,86134

1

2,6





3565,96

4



3565,96

2070

1,72269

2

2,7





891,491

1



891,491

2070

0,43067

0

2,8





891,491

1



891,491

2070

0,43067

0

2,9

-





2674,47

3



2674,47

2070

1,29202

1

2,1





1782,98

2



1782,98

2070

0,86134

1

2,11





3565,96

4



3565,96

2070

1,72269

2

2,12





2674,47

3



2674,47

2070

1,29202

1

2,13

-





891,491

1



891,491

2070

0,43067

0

2,14





1782,98

2



1782,98

2070

0,86134

1

2,15





891,491

1



891,491

2070

0,43067

0

2,16





5348,95

6



5348,95

2070

2,58403

3

3

**







23284,4

100

23284,4

2070

11,2485

11






89149,1

100

23284,4

100

112433



73



. 1.1.

2. ,



2.1.


, , ( 1.6).


2.1.1. -1 -1 -2 -2


.

Ri , , .


, (2.1)


, ;

;

φ , φ = 1,05.


R-1 = 60 ∙ 8 ∙ 2/(12,8709∙ 1,05) = 71,0351

R-2 = 225,1112

R = 11,73606

R = 33,74767


ti. . , . , ..


(2.2)


-1 = (6,675∙ 60/3) + 3= 547,5

-2 = 1745,4

= 39

= 147


ti , -;

P ;

t , ,

t = 1¸3 .


:

(2.3)


-1 = 547,5/71,0351= 7,707457


(2.4)


h2 , , h2 = 0,85¸0,9.

-2 = (1745,4∙ 0,85) / 225,1112= 6,590475

(2.5)


-1= 2,7225*1,05/253*8*2*0,9*2=0,325409

-1= 1,041308

 

 

2.1.2.


, , . , . :

 


(2.6)

-1= (27,225∙ 60/5) + 3=329,7

-2= 749,7429


 


(2.7)


(Nicφτ) , , ;

(60) , .


-1=12,8709*1,05*329,7/60*82=4,641367

-2=3,330544



2.1.3.


. .

, :


(2.8)


T . ;

D , , , D = 0,37;

φ , , φ = 1,03;

h , h = 0,86¸0,9,

.


= 89149,0858*0,37*1,03/253*8*0,86*2*1,5=6,506173


, :

(2.9)


, , ( 2 K = 0,6¸0,7; 3 0,4¸0,5).


=89149,0858*0,37*0,6*1,03/253*8*0,86*1,5=7,8074

2.1.4.


() , , , , .

, :

, ;

, -1, -2 20 % .



2.2.


: -, .

- : ; ; ; - (, , , ..).

() ( ) , ( ), ( ).

2.09.04-87 : - , , ( ), , , .



2.2.1. -


2.2.1.1.


:

- - - , ( );

- .

:


2, (2.10)


fa ( ), 2;

X ( m );

, = 6¸7 4¸5 . 10.


F=21,3375*24*42


2.2.1.2.


:

, , ;

.

:


, 2, (2.11)

f1 , 2;

f2 , 2;

.


F=22+14*(5-1)=78 2

2.1

F=

78

^2

F=

50

^2

-

F=

54

^2

F=

24

^2

F=

21

^3

F=

22

^2

-

F=

21

^2

F=

15

^2

F=

24

^2

F=

18

^2

F=

24

^2

F=

33

^2



2.2.1.3.


10 :


, 2, (2.12)


;

f 10 , 2;

()1 () (, ): 2501

()2 () ():800-1000 0,8

()3 :

, : 810 1,3

()4 :6 셅..0,8

()5 :I..1


Fck= 0.1*541*4*0,85*0,87*1,3*0,8*1=166 2

2.2

/, ,

Fck=

166,428912

166

^2

,

Fck=

104,01807

104

^2

( )

Fck=

66,5715648

67

^2

Fck=

20,803614

21

^2

Fck=

6,2410842

6

^2

Fck=

6,2410842

6

^2

Fck=

12,4821684

12

^2

(, )

Fck=

99,8573472

100

^2

, ,

Fck=

10,401807

10

^2

, ( )

Fck=

249,643368

250

^2

( )

Fck=

33,2857824

33

^2

( )

Fck=

10,401807

10

^2


:


, (2.13)


G ;

GT .

GT 0,5% . 15% .

Gcyt=27050+135,25=27185,25

:

, (2.14)


G , ;

qM 100 (. .2.12 2);

, =5.


=0,01*27185,25*3,2*5=4349,64

2.3

=

4349,64

=

543,705

=

135,92625

=

407,77875


, :

, , (2.15)


G , ;

, 10 . (. .2.13 2).

= 5 .

= 10 .

2.4



65117

65115

43118


/


4791,096

3992,58

4791,096


5749,3152

4791,096

5749,3152


598,887

499,0725

598,887


1054,04112

878,3676

1054,04112


:

, (2.16)


100 ;

q , .

2.5

8980,6

8980,6

8980,6

3462,4

3462,4

3462,4

.

6275,6

6275,6

6275,6

.

5842,8

5842,8

5842,8

.

421,98

421,98

421,98


, , , :


(2.17)


Gi , ;

g 1 2 , 600 /2, 500 /2, 600÷700 /2.


Fct=4791,096/600=7,98516






2.6

/

7,98516

6,6543

7,98516

^2

8,84510031

7,37091692

8,84510031

^2

1,197774

0,998145

1,197774

^2

17,9612

17,9612

17,9612

^2

6,9248

6,9248

6,9248

^2

.

12,5512

12,5512

12,5512

^2

.

11,6856

11,6856

11,6856

^2

.

0,84396

0,84396

0,84396

^2


2.2.1.4. , -


, , , , , , .

. (KA112A-400) f , 4,5÷5.

(, , .) , f, :

2 (2.18)


, =5.


Fck= 1,2*5=62

2.7

F=

6

^2

F=

7,2

^2

F=

7,2

^2

.

F=

6

^2



- : ; - ; ; (); .

. , ( ) .

42 .

18 ( ).

(4 .) 18 . : 2,1 2,1 .

(4 .) 6 . : 0,65 0,65 .

30 ( ).

18



2.2.2. ( )


:


Fx=fo×Acc×K , 2, (2.19)


fo ( ), 2;

Acc ;

K - ,

K = 2,5÷3,0.


FX = 21,3375∙ 4∙ 3 = 34630,7625 2


2.2.3.


- .

: ; ; ; ; ; ; - . 2.09.04-87.

, .2.1.

15 ∙ 73 = 10952.

 


(2.20)


Ft= 3366,4+785+1095+34631/80/100=4,984675

. 2.1. S - ( )





















() / . . : - . : , 1996. 245 .

. . : . 2- ., . . .: , 1993.- 271 .

www.garo.ru

. ., . . . . , 1984

. . , 1988






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