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-

-








, , , , - , , , .


( - ). 2.05.02-85.

, , , , . 1,52,0 .

20+00, , .


.................................................................................................. 4


1. - .............. 5

1.1. ...................................................... 5

1.2. ................................................................................ 6

2.       ................. 8

2.1. ................................................................................. 8

2.2. ............................................................ 8

2.3. ........................................................... 9

2.3.1.   ................................................... 9

2.3.2.   ........... 10

2.3.3.   ...... 11

2.3.4.   .................. 11

2.3.5.   ................... 11

2.3.6.   ............................................. 12

3.       ............................................ 13

3.1. ........................................ 13

3.2. ........................................ 13

3.3. ............................................................. 15

3.4. ................................ 16

3.5. ............ 17

3.6. ......................................... 18

4.       ........................... 20

4.1. .................................................... 20

4.2. ................... 21

4.3. ............................................. 22

4.4. ....... 23

4.5. ............................................................... 24

4.6. ...................... 27

5.      

......................................................................... 28

5.1. ............................... 28

5.2. 20+00......................................... 28

5.2.1.   ........................................... 28

5.2.2.  

..................................................................................... 30

5.2.3.   ................................... 31

5.2.4.   ............................................. 32

5.2.5.   ........................................... 32



- .

- . . - , . , , , . . .

- . . , . .

1.         -

1.1           


- 170,8 . 2, 2,8% . .

- , . - , . .

, 2,1 ./2. (, -, ), 83% . , 1 2000 , 335,9 . , 205,4 .

, , - . , , , , , , , . . . . . , , . : (, , , , ), , ( , , , , ), . - , , , , .

, , , .


1.2


, , , . , , , . . ( ) -, , , , , . ( , -) , . , , . , -, : , -, . .

, , - .


2.

2.1


, . 4.20 2.05.02-85, . 2.1.

3- 10 . 3- 2000 .


2.1

,

30

,

450

,

3000

,

70000


,

8000

,

300

,

100


2.2


- 2.05.02-85 3- , 100 /. , , . 2.2.

2.2

1.

3

2. , /

100

3. ,

2

4. ,

3,50

5. ,

7,00

6. ,

2,50

7. ,

0,50

8. ,

12,00

9. -

2

10.

11. ,

20

12.

13. ,

40

14. ,

600

15. ,

200

16. ,

350

17. ,

50

18. ,

10000

19. ,

3000

2.3

 

2.3.1


-130, .

,

i(max) = D f , (1)

D ;

f .

-130 3- , 1 2 . 3- -130 D = 0,105. 3- 0,02.

i (max) = 0,105 0,020 = 0,085 85 .

 

2.3.2


. . :

S = V / 3, 6 + V2 / (85 (j + f)) + 10 (2)

S = 100 / 3, 6 + 1002 / (85 (0, 45 + 0, 02) + 10) = 288 ,

S , ;

j - , 0,45;

V , 3- 100 /;

f , 0,02.


2.3.3


, :

S = 2 × S (3)

S = 2 × 288 = 576 .

 

2.3.4


. .

R () = S2 / (2 Hr) (4)

R () = 2882 / (2 1,2) = 34560 ,

S , 288 (. . 2.3.2.);

Hr , 1,2 .

 

2.3.5


: .

:

R () = S2 / 2 [H + S sin (α / 2)] (5)

R () = 2882 / [2 (0,70 + 288 sin1] = 7760

0,70 ;

α , .

, 5% . :

R () = 0,157 V2 (6)

R () =0,157 602 = 565

, 7760 .

2.3.6


, , .

:

R (min) = V2 / [127 (m + I ()] (7)

R (min) = 602 / [127 (0, 10 + 0, 05)] = 189 ()

m ( 0,10);

I() , 0,05.

2.        

3.1


1: 10 000 2,50 . , .

- . -.

- . 4 . 5 , . 3000 .

17 . 1000 .

3.2


, , . 3.1

,

3.1

,

3250

1279

1

3619

2110

2

3612

3445

2060

4625


L = [( - )2 + ( - )2]1/2 (1)

L = [(3250 2060)2 + (1279 4625)2]1/2 = 3551,31 ().

1-

S1 = [( 1)2 + ( 1)2]1/2 (2)

S1 = [(3250 3619)2 + (1279 2110)2]1/2 = 909,24 ().

1- 2-

S2 = [(1 2)2 + (1 2)2]1/2 (3)

S2 = [(3619 3612)2 + (2110 3445)2]1/2 = 1335,02 ().

2-

S3 = [(2 )2 + (2 )2]1/2 (4)

S3 = [(3612 2060)2 + (3445 4625)2]1/2 = 1949,64 ().

1

D01 = Arccos [(X1 X) / S1] (5)

D01 = Arccos [(3619 3250) / 909,24] = Arccos 0,4058 6603

R01 = : 6603

1 2

D12 = Arccos [(X2 X1) / S2] (6)

D12 = Arccos [(3612 3619) / 1335,02] = Arccos -0,0052 9018

R12 = : 8942

2

D2N = Arccos [(X X2) / S3] (7)

D2N = Arccos [(2060 3612) / 1949,64] = Arccos 0,7960 14245

R2N = : 3815

1-

U1 = D12 D01 (8)

U1 = 9018 - 6603 = 2415

2-

U2 = D2N D12 (9)

U2 = 14245 - 9018 = 5227

1.

Σ U ΣU = D2N D01 (10)

(2415 + 5227) = 14245 - 6603

7642 = 7642, .

3.3

1-

U1 = 2415; R1 = 3000.

1 = R1 g(U1 / 2) (11)

1 = 3000 Tg(24º15' / 2) = 644,51 ()

:

K1 = R1 π U1 / 180º (12)

K1 = 3000 3,1416 24º15' / 180º = 1269,73 ()

:

1 = 2 T1 1 (13)

1 = 2 644,51 1269,73 = 19,29 ()

1 = R1 [(1 / os(U1 / 2)) - 1] (14)

1 =3000[(1 / os(24º15'/ 2)) - 1] = 68,45()

2-

U2 = 5227; R2 = 1000.

2 = R2 g(U2/ 2) (15)

2 = 1000 Tg(5227/ 2) = 492,60 ()

:

K2 = R2 π U2 / 180º (16)

K2 = 1000 3,1416 5227/ 180º = 915,43 ()

:

2 = 2 T2 2 (17)

2 = 2 492,60 915,43 = 69,77 ()

2 = R2 [(1 / os(U2 / 2)) - 1] (18)

2 =1000[(1 / os(5227/ 2)) - 1] = 114,75()

2. :

2 Σ Σ = ΣĠ (19)

2 (644,51 + 492,60) (1269,73 + 915,43) = 19,29 + 69,77

89,06 = 89,06,

3.4


L() = 0+00,00.

1-

L (1) = L () + S1 (20)

L (1) = 0,00 +909,24 = 909,24 ()

9+09,24

2-

L (2) = L (1) + S2 1 (21)

L (2) = 909,24 + 1335,02 19,29 = 2224,97 ()

22+24,97

L () = L (2) + S3 2 (22)

L () = 2224,97 + 1949,64 69,77 = 4104,84 ()

L = L() L() (23)

L = 4104,84 ()

3. .

ΣS Σ = L򠠠 (24)

(909,24 + 1335,02 + 1949,64) (19,29 + 69,77) = 4104,84

4104,84 = 4104,84,

3.5


1- :

L(1) = L(1) 1 (25)

L(1) = 909,24 644,51 =264,73 ()

2+64,73

1- :

L(1) = L(1) + 1 (26)

L(1) = 264,73 +1269,73 =1534,46 ()

15+4,46

2- :

L(2) = L(2) 2 (27)

L(2) = 2224,97 492,60 = 1732,37 ()

17+32,37

2- :

L(2) = L(2) + 2 (28)

L(2) = 1732,37 +915,43 =2647,80 ()

26+7,80

1- :

1 = L(1) L() (29)

1 = 264,73 00,00 = 264,73 ()

2- :

2 = L(2) L(1) (30)

2 = 1732,37 - 1534,46 = 197,91 ()

3- :

3 = L() L(2) (31)

3 = 4104,84 - 2647,80= 1457,04 ()

4. :

Σ + Σ = L򠠠 (32)

(264,73 + 197,91 + 1457,04) + (1269,73 + 915,43 ) = 4104,84

4104,84 = 4104,84, .

3.6

.. 3.2-3.5 3.2 , .

= L / L (33)

= 4104,84 / 3551,31 = 1,16

3- R = 600 .

2000 ., ,

L = 2 = 915,43 .

, .

3.2

 


-

.

R,

,

S,

,

D,

+

+

+

0

0,00































909,24

264,73

66 03

1

9

09,24


24 15


3000

644,51

1269,73

19,29

68,45

2

64,73

15

34,46



















1335,02

197,91

90 18

2

22

24,97


52 27


1000

492,60

915,43

69,77

114,75

17

32,37

26

47,80




















1949,64

1457,04

142 45

41

04,84

















S







1137,11

2185,16

89,06

183,20





4193,90

1919,68







4.

4.1


2- 2- - (2) = 1,20 .

:

() = d + t + z + ∆ (1)

() = 1,5+0,15+0,5=2,15 ()

d , 1,50 ; t , 0,15 ; z , 0,50 ,

:

() = h(ch) + h(z) (2)

() = 1,20 + 0,60 = 1,80 (),

h(ch) , 1,20 ; h(z) , 3- 0,60 .

, 2- 3- , 1,80 .


4.2


0 20.

= (min) + (x / L) dh, (3)

(min) , ; ( ); L ; dh , 2,50 .

. 4.1, :

H = 2,50 (x / L). (4)


4.1

+

,

L,

h,

Hmin,

H,

0+00

3,40

10

0,85

127,50

128,35

1+00

2,00

4,80

1,04

130,00

131,04

2+00

3,50

7,20

1,22

130,00

131,22

2+64,73 (1)

1,00

6,00

0,42

132,50

132,92

3+00

3,00

6,70

1,12

132,50

133,62

4+00

2,00

8,00

0,63

135,00

135,63

5+00

3,00

7,00

1,07

135,00

136,07

6+00

4,00

7,10

1,41

135,00

136,41

7+00

1,00

9,00

0,28

137,50

137,78

8+00

5,00

7,00

1,79

135,00

136,79

9+00

-

-

-

137,50

137,50

10+00

10,00

11,00

2,27

137,50

139,77

11+00

9,00

10,50

2,14

137,50

139,64

12+00

-

-

-

140,00

140,00

13+00

0,90

8,00

0,28

140,00

140,28

14+00

7,00

8,50

2,06

137,50

139,56

15+00

2,00

7,50

0,67

137,50

138,17

15+34,46 (1)

2,00

6,50

0,77

137,50

138,27

16+00

-

-

-

137,50

137,50

17+00

2,00

3,00

1,67

137,50

139,17

17+32,37 (2)

1,00

4,00

0,63

140,00

140,63

18+00

-

-

-

142,50

142,50

19 00

4,00

5,40

1,85

142,50

144,35

20+00

-

-

-

142,50

142,50

4.3


. 4.1 , . 8+00 16+00 1,50 .

: , , 2- ( 7+50 8 +75; 15+00 17+00); , , 1- ; 3- .

00+00 7+00 15 . 7+00 16+00 . 16+00 20+00 10 .

, 2,15 . 2- (1,80 2,15 ).

16+00 , 30000 . 7+00 , 30000 , (10000 3000 ).

4.4.

0+00 130,00. 15 () 700 .

1- :

(1) = 131,50

(2) = 133,00

(3) = 134,50

(4) = 136,00

(5) = 137,50

(6) = 139,0

(7) = 140,50

:

(7) = (7) + i1 × L = 130,00 + 0,015 × 700 = 140,50

2- , 0 900 :

(8) = 140,50

(9) = 140,50

(10) = 140,50

(11) = 140,50

(12) = 140,50

(13) = 140,50

(14) = 140,50

(15) = 140,50

(16) = 140,50

3- , 10 400 :

(17) = 141,50

(18) = 142,50

(19) = 143,50

(20) = 144,50

:

(20) = (16) + i3 × L = 140,50 + 0,01 × 400 = 144,50

4.5

:

1- :

L (1) = 700 .

: R1 = 30000 .

: i1 = 15 = 0,015

: i2 = 0 = 0

- (1) = ( 7) = 140,50 ;

1 = R1 (i1 i2) (5)

1 = 30000 (0,015 - 0) = 450 .

:

1 = 1 / 2 (6)

1 = 450 / 2 =225

:

1 = 1² / (2 R1) (7)

1 = 225² / (2 30000) = 0,84 .

:

L (HBK1) = L (BB1) 1 (8)

L (HBK1) = 700 225 = 475

4+75,00

:

L (1) = L (BB1) + 1 (9)

L (1) = 700 + 225 = 925

9+25,00

:

(HBK1) = (BB1) - i1 1 (10)

(HBK1) = 140,50 - 0,015 225 = 137,13

:

(BK1) = (BB1) = 140,50

5+00:

1 = 500 475 = 25

H( 5) = ( 5) - 1² / (2 R1) (11)

H( 5) = 25² / (2 30000) = 137,49

9+00:

2 = 925 900 = 25

H( 9) = ( 9) 2² / (2 R1) (12)

H( 9) = 25² / (2 30000) = 140,40

2- :

L (2) = 1600 .

: R2 = 30000 .

: i2 = 0 = 0

: i3 = 10 = 0,01

- (2) = ( 16) = 140,50 ;

2 = R2 (i2 i3) (13)

2 = 30000 (0,01 - 0 ) = 300 .

:

2 = 2 / 2 (14)

2 = 300 / 2 =150

:

2 = 2² / (2 R2) (15)

2 = 150² / (2 30000) = 0,38 .

:

L (HBK2) = L (BB2) 2 (16)

L (HBK2) = 1600 150 = 1450

14+50,00

:

L (2) = L (BB2) + 2 (17)

L (2) = 1600 + 150 = 1750

17+50,00

:

(HBK2) = (BB2) = 140,50

:

(BK2) = H (2) + i3 T2 (18)

(BK2) = 140,50 + 0,01 150 = 142,00

15+00:

3 = 1500 1450 = 50

H ( 15) = ( 15) 3² / (2 R2) (19)

H ( 15) = 50² / (2 30000) = 140,54

17+00:

4 = 1750 1700 = 50

H ( 17) = ( 17) 4² / (2 R2) (20)

H ( 17) = 50² / (2 30000) = 141,54

4.6


17 19 ( ) :

= || L / (|| + ||) (21)

, ; L , 100 ; , .

18+00

X2 = |( 19)| L / (|( 19)| + |( 20)|)

X2 = 0,85 100 / (0,85 + 2,00) = 29,82 . (22)

L(02) = L( 19) + 2 (23)

L(02) = 1900 + 29,82 = 1929,82 19+29,82

5.

5.1


( ) , , . , . , :

3- 2 1:4 0+00 7+00; 9+00 15+00;

6- 3 1:1,5

3- (18+00 19+00) 10.

, ( 1:10), .


5.2 20+00

 

5.2.1

, , .

20+00 . L = 90 (. . ). dh 2,50 .

i = dh / L (1)

i = 5 / 90 = 0,056 56

:

m = 1 / i (2)

m = 1 / 0,056 = 18.

10, .

20+00 (. . 2.2 . ) :

                   1;

                   ;

                   m = 4;

                   n = 5;

                   = 144,50 ;

                   = 142,50 ;

                   2,00 ;

                   B = 7,00 ;

                   C =2,50 ;

                   i = 20 ;

                   i = 40 ;

                   i = 30 ;

                   i = 20 ;

                   h = 0,60 ;

                   h = 0,20 .

, h = 1,40 , , 1,50 1. , , 1,00 .

 

5.2.2


:

= i (B / 2) (3)

= 144,50 0,07 = 144,43 .

:

= i (4)

= 144,43 0,10 = 144,33 .

:

= h (5)

= 144,50 0,60 = 143,90 .

H d : H i.

:

d = [ + i ( + B / 2)] / [(1 / m) i] (6)

d = (144,33 143,90 + 0,03 6) / (1 / 4 0,03) = 2,77 .

:

L = B + 2 (C + d) (7)

L = 7,00 + 2 (2,50 + 2,77) = 17,54 .

:

= i (L / 2) (8)

= 143,90 0,03 17,54 / 2 = 143,64 .

:

L = L + 2 m ( ) (9)

L = 17,54 + 2 4 (143,64 142,50) = 26,66 .

 

5.2.3


, . , .

:

f = {[( ) + ( )] / 2} (L / 2) + h L 0,5 + 0,5 m ( )2 (10)

f = {[(143,64 142,50) + (143,90 142,50)] / 2} (17,54 / 2) + 0,20 26,66 0,5 + 0,5 4 (143,64 142,50)2 = 1,27 8,77 + 2,666 + 2,5992 = 16,40 2

:

= hꠠ (11)

= 142,50 1,40 = 141,10 .

f :

L = f / (h h) (h h) (m + n) 0,5 (12)

L = 16,40 / (1,40 0,20) (1,40 0,20) (4 + 5) 0,5 = 8,28 .

:

= L ) i𠠠 (13)

= 141,10 8,28 0,02 = 140,93 .

:

L = h (m + n) + L (14)

L = 1,40 (4 + 5) + 8,28 = 20,88 .

L = h n (15)

L = 1,4 5 = 7,00 .


5.2.4


:

L = ( ) m (16)

L = (144,33 141,10) 4 = 12,92 .

L = hk n (17)

L = 1,40 5 = 7,00 .

L = B + 2 (C + L + 1,00) (18)

L = 7,00 + 2 (2,50 + 12,92 + 1,00) = 39,84 .

:

L = L + h n +1,00 (19)

L = 8,28 + 1,40 5 + 1,00 = 16,28 .

 

5.2.5


:

F = (2 L + L) h񠠠 (20)

F = (2 20,88 + 26,66) 0,20 = 13,68 2.

:

F = 2 f (21)

F = 2 16,40 = 32,80 2.

():

F = 2 f (21)

F = 2 16,40 = 32,80 2.


- 3- : , , .

1.     4104,84 .

2.     1,16.

3.     3000 1000 .

4.     .

5.     , .

6.     18 19 , .

7.     - 15;

8.     30000 ;

9.     1-, 3-, 10- .

10. 20+00, .



1.     : . .. , 2003 .

2.     2.05.02.-85. . .: , , 1986. 56.

3.     21.101-97.. . .: , 1998. 41.

4.     : . .: , 1987. 55.

5.     : / . .. . .: , 1989. 437 .

6.     .., .. . .1. .: , 1987. 368 .



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345
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2010
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