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, , .

, , . , , , , . , , , , , , .

, , - .











, . , .

, , , , . . [1].

[1]. , [2].

, U υ .

:

1.     

2.     

3.     

4.     

, , , :

,

. , . .

, , [3], , . , , - , .

, , () , .






















.

[4], , l, m, n , V, , S. .

, S, , V :


, , , , . , , , , . ,

,

(2.2)

(2.3)

(2.4)

(2.5)

dU = TdS pdV

dF = SdT pdV

dI = TdS + Vdp

d = SdT + Vdp

, , , .

, (2.6)

(2.7)

(2.8)

(2.9)

(2.10)

. , (2.7)

(2.11)

, (2.7)(2.10) (2.11).

, , , , [4], (2.1) . , , , . , , , (2.1). , , , (2.1) . .

. , (2.8) . (2.8) (2.3)

(2.12)

(2.1) . ,

(2.13)

(2.10). (2.4) (2.13)

(2.14)

(2.10). (2.9) (2.13),

(2.15)

(2.7) (2.12)

(2.16)

, (2.5) (2.15) , (2.16) (2.2)

(2.17)

, , , , , , , .








.

,

, , , , : , ࠠ , :

;

--

, , ,

(3.1)

(2.12). , , , ,

P V :



.

, .

r , S -, P, V T . . , , , ,

:

g, r U333 /.

g, r . , U1400 /. , , [5], , . , , . , , , , .



















V .

.

(5.1)

(3.1) (2.2).

.

(5.2)

, (2.12).

, , ,

,

[6]. , , (5.3).

, , -- , ,













.


.

, (6.1)

(5.1).

(6.2)

(3.1) (2.8).

(6.1) ,

(6.3)


(6.3)


(6.4)

, . , , (6.2), , , , .

, .

(6.5)

(6.6)

(6.7)

(6.5) (6.7)


ࠠ (6.8)

, . . , , . , , , , .

.

(6.9)

(6.1), (2.15) (2.2).

(6.9)

(6.10)

(3.1)

(6.11)

, (3.1),

(6.10) (6.11) :

(6.12)

(6.8). , .

















.

1. V.



(7.1)

, (7.1) , >CV, ,

= V ,

=V=0.

2.

(7.2)

(2.7), (2.12), (2.17) . , , , . , , .

3. .

(7.3)

:

(7.4)

, . U=const T=const. (7.4) .

(7.5)


/- ^ .6


(7.6)

(7.7)

,

(7.8)

.

(7.9)

(7.10)

(7.11)

(7.12)

, , I=U+pV dI=dU+d(pV).

, , , . , , , , . .

a)      (7.13)

(3.1) (2.2).

b)      (7.14)

, S p (6.9).

, , .






















CP .

, , TdS=CPdT,

, Cp . ,

(8.1)

, =const

dI=TdS+Vdp=TdS=CpdT.

.

(8.2)

(7.11).

:

(8.3)

(2.2), (2.8), (7.10) (8.2).

,

(8.4)

, , (8.4).

, , , .

. , , , , , [4] [7], - , , , , .

, , , , , , , , . , , , , , .



, .

, , , . :

dU=TdS-pdV+mdN, (9.1)

dF=-SdT-pdV+mdN, (9.2)

dI=TdS+Vdp+mdN, (9.3)

d=-SdT+Vdp+mdN (9.4)

dN , m , .

(9.1) :

(9.5)

(9.6)

(9.7)

(9.5) :



(9.8)

(9.6) (9.7), , :

(9.9)

(9.10)

(9.2) (9.3) , , , , :


(9.11)

(9.12)


, (9.4) . (9.8) (9.12) :


(9.13)

(9.14)

(9.15)

(9.16)

(9.17)


(9.13) . (9.14)(9.17) , S , - S V , - V , - .


, , , .

, , , - .

, ,

dp=dV=dT=dS=0 (9.19)

(9.20)

(9.20)

,

dU=dF=dI=d=0 (9.21)

(9.19) , (9.20) .

, , (9.19)(9.21) V V . ( . [8]).

(9.22)

(, , . .).

, , , , . . , .















1. .., , t.1, . 446, "", 1969.

2. .., , .3, .2, "", 1974.

3. . , ., , "", 1968.

4. .., .., , , "",1977.

5. .., , .17, "", 1976.

6. ., , .147, "",1977.

7. ., , "" , 1970.

8. .., , .192, "", 1971.













.................... 3

腅. 6

.... 11

充. 13

V ... 15

17

酅. 21

26

, .. 28

33



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