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Ȼ

 


:

 

: . F=2,5 ; V=1,5 /; D=260 ; δ=6%; Lc=6 .

 



:

: ..








2008

Ȼ



150411

:

: 31


: . F=2,5 ; V=1,5 /; D=260 ; δ=6%; Lc=6 .


-


1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

10.

11.

12.

13.

14.


1 1.

2 - 3.


2008.

2008.


________________

___________________


4

1. 6

2. ࠠ 10

3. ࠠ 14

4. 22

5. ࠠ 24

6. ࠠ 25

7. ࠠ 28

8. ⠠ 29

9. 頠 33

10. ࠠ 35

11. 38

12. ⠠ 39

13. ࠠ 39

14. ࠠ 40

42


. , . , . (, , , ..) (, , .). (, , , -, , ).

, . . . , , , , . . , ; , , - .

(, - ) . - -, . (, , ). ( , , ), ( , ), ( , , ).

( ) . , , . , , . , , , . .

1.

 

1.1.


, (1.1)

- ;

- ;

- ;

- , ;

- , .

=0,894


1.2.


, (1.2)

P- , ;

F , ;

- , /.

=3,75


1.3.


, (1.3)

, ;

, ;

- .

=4,2


1.4.


, (1.4)

- , /;

- , /;

, .

=11,5 /


1.5.


, (1.5)

n , /;

- , /.

=109,87 /

41328 =3 , n=750 /, S=4,1%, n/T=1,8.


1.6.


n=n-s , (1.6)

n , /;

n , /;

s , %.

n=750-(7504,1)/100=719,25 /


1.7.


, (1.7)

, /;

n .

=74 /


1.8.


i.=2÷4; i=3÷6;

i= ii., (1.8)

i= (3÷6)(2÷4)=6÷24

,

i ;

- , /;

- , /.

=6,4

i. =2,6; i=3

i=8; =3,55; =2,24

1.9. ,


→→

( )

n1=n.,

,

n1=719,25 /,

ω1=74 /.

( , )

n2=n/., (1.11)

n2 , /;

n , /;

. .

n2 =719,25/2,24=321 /

, (1.12)

- , /.

=33 /

()

n3=n2/, (1.13)

n3 - /.

n3= 321/3,55=90,5 /

, (1.14)

- , /;

=9,3 /

()

n=n3;

.

n3=90,5 /

ω3=9,3 /


1.10.


( )

, (1.15)

, ͷ;

;

- , /.

=50,67 ͷ

( )

1=., (1.16)

1- , ͷ;

. ;

- .

1= 50,672,240,970,99=108,9 ͷ

2= 1., (1.17)

2 , ͷ;

1 , ͷ;

. ;

- .

2= 108,93,550,960,99=367,42 ͷ

3= 2 , (1.18)

3 , ͷ;

2 , ͷ;

- .

3= 367,420,98=360 ͷ

2.

 

1=,

1

..=i/i..,

n=n-s.

1= =108,9ͷ;

..=2,24;

n=719,25 /

2.1. n=n-s


=3,75

n=719,25 /


2.2.


, (2.1)

d1 , ;

1 ͷ.

=124÷179

d1min=125


2.3.


d2=d1..(1-ε), (2.2)

d2 , ;

.. ;

ε =0,015 .

d2=1252,24 (1-0,015)=275,8

() 17383-73

d2=280


2.4.


, (2.3)

=2,274

< 3%, (2.4)

Δ ;

- ;

, (1.10).

=1,5%< 3%


2.5.

 

, (2.5)

0 , ( 2,2);

min , ;

d1 , ;

d2 , .

=233,25

(2.6)
max , ;

d1 , ;

d2 , .

- max min.

=( min+ max )/2=521,625

L , ;

, ;

d1 , ;

d2 , .

=1690,6

1284,1-80

L=1600


2.7.


, (2.8)

W=0,5π(d1+d2), ; (2.9)

y=(d1-d2)2, ; (2.10)

W=0,5*3,14(125+280)=635,85 ;

y=(125-280)2=24025 2.

=

=475,763 젠

0,01L =16 0,025L=40 .


2.8.


, (2.11)

α1 ;

d1 , ;

d2 , ;

, .

=161,43º


2.9.


, (2.12)

- , ;

0 , ;

L , ;

;

α ;

z

=3,04

Z=3

2.10.


(2.13)

1.3

F0 , ;

θ - , , (ͷ2)/2

θ=0,18.

(2.14)

υ , /;

d1 , ;

ω1 , / (1.7).

=4,625 /

=226,32


2.11. ,


, (2.15)

F , ;

F0 , ;

Z ;

α1 .

=1340,13

2.12. 20889-80


, (2.16)

, ;

Z .

=

=63

15

3.


.

45 . HB=200, HB=230


3.1.


, (3.1)

- ;

GHlimb ;

L ;

- .

GHlimb=2+70, (3.2)

, (3.3)

- ;

;

- ;

L .

=481

, (3.4)

- ;

2 ;

- ;

L .

=427

, (3.5)

=408,6


3.2.


, (3.6)

- , ;

=43;

( . );

2 , ͷ;

, ;

ψ ,

ψ=0,25 2185-66;

=1,2.

=184,47

3.3.


mn=(0.01-0.02) , (3.7)

mn , ;

- , ( 3.6).

mn=(0,01-0,02)184,47=1,847-3,5894 .

2185-66 ω=180

mn=3,5


3.4.


β=10

, (3.8)

=21,2

z1=20

z2= z1 up, (3.9)

z2= 20 3,55=71

.

, (3.10)

cosβ , ;
z1, z2 ;

mn , ;

- , .

=0,884

3.5.


(3.11)

d1- , .

=79

(3.12)

d2 , .

=281

==180 젠 (3.13)

d1 = d1+2 mn, (3.14)

d1 , .

d1 =71+23,5=78

d2 = d2+2 mn, (3.15)

d2 - , .

d2 =281+23,5=288

.

df1 = d1-2,5 mn, (3.16)

df1 , .

df1 =71-2,53,5=62,25

df2 = d2-2,5 mn , (3.17)

df2 , .

df2 =281-2,53,5=272,25

b2 = ψbaaω , (3.18)

b2 , ;

- , ;

ψ .

b2 = 0,25180=45

b1= b2 +5 , (3.19)

b1 , ;

b2 , .

b1= 45 +5=50


3.6.


, (3.20)

ψbd ;

b1 , ;

d1 , .

=0,63


3.7.


, (3.21)

υ , /;

ω2 - , /;

d1 , .

=1,303 /

3.8.


= β α υ, (3.22)

= 1,02 1 1,05 =1,071


3.9.


, (3.23)

σH , ;

- , ;

2 , ͷ;

;

.

=383,5

,


3.10.


, (3.24)

Ft , ;

1 , ͷ;

d1 , .

=2756,96 ͷ

, (3.25)

Fr , ;

α 20;

β .

=1134,9 ͷ

Fa= Ft tgβ, (3.26)

F , .

Fa= 2756,96 tg8=387 ͷ


3.11


, (3.27)

σF , ;

Ft , ;

mn , .

F= Fβ Fυ=1,261,1=1,38; (3.28)

YF Zυ

Zυ1=Z1/Cos3β=20/0,993=20,6=20;

Zυ2=Z2/Cos3 β=71/0,993=73,17=73;

YF1=4,09 YF2=3,61;

Y F2

, (3.29)

=0,94

, (3.30)

ε2 , ε2 =1,5;

n .

=0,916=0,92

, (3.31)

, ;

- , ;

- .

=,

3.9..1. =1,75 45 ;

=1,0 .

==1,75

- (3.31);

- (3.31).

=237

=206

/YF

/YF1;

/YF2.

/YF1=237/4,09=57,9

/YF2=206/3,61=57

, .

.

,

=72,69

72,69 ≤206

4.


.


4.1. ( )


, (4.1)

dB1 - ;

Tk1 - , ͷ;

[ τ ] - , .

, [ τ ]

=29,47

dB1=30

. d1 ( ≈ 13 ).

d1y= dB1+2 =30+2=32

.


4.2. (- )

 

, (4.2)

d2 - .

=40,45

, .

d2 =45

:

1.                  d2 =45 ;

2.                  d2n =50 ;

3.                  dk2=55

.







. 4.2. -


5.


, , .

d1=79 ; da1=78 ; df1=62,25 ; b1=50 ;

d2=281 ; da2=288 ; df2=272,25 ; b2=45 .


5.1.


d=1,6d2, (5.1)

d , ;

d2 , .

d=1,655=88


5.2.


l = (1,2-1,5) d2, (5.2)

l , .

l = (1,2-1,5) 55=66-82,5

l =50


5.3.

 

δ= (2,5-4) mn, (5.3)

δ - , .;

mn , .

δ= (2,5-4) 3,5=8,75-14

δ=14

5.4.


= 0,3b2, (5.4)

, ;

b2 , .

= 0,340=12

, 15 -20.

20

6.



6.1.


δ = 0,025 ω + 1, (6.1)

δ , ;

ω , .

δ = 0,025 ω + 1=0,025180+1=5,5

:

δ 1 = 0,02 ω + 1, (6.2)

δ1- , .

δ 1 = 0,02 180 + 1=3,6

δ 1 =8 , δ =8


6.2.


:

= 1,5 δ,

, .

= 1,5 8=12

1 = 1,5δ1, (6.3)

δ1 , .

1 = 1,58=12

6.3.


= 2,35 δ. (6.4)

= 2,35 8=18,8

=19


6.4.


m =(0,85÷1)δ, (6.5)

m , .

m =(0,85÷1)8=6,8÷8

m =8


6.5.


d1=(0,03÷0,036) ω + 12, (6.6)

d1=(0,03÷0,036) 180 + 12=16,8÷17,76

20 9150 59


6.6. ( )

 

2 > 2,1d1, (6.7)

2 > 2,120=40,2

41


6.7. ,


d3= (0,5÷0,75)d1, (6.8)

d3= (0,5÷0,75)20=10÷15

10 9150 59


6.8. , :


d2=(0,7÷0,75)d1,

d2=(0,7÷0,75)20=14÷15

16 9150 59


6.9. .


dn = (0,7÷1,4) δ, (6.10)

dn = (0,7÷1,4) 8=5,6÷11,2

dn=10 915059

7. .


- 1:1.

, - aω=180 .

; ; .

:

) 1= 1,2δ=1,28=9,6 , 1=10 ; ;

) =δ=8 ;

) =δ=8 ; , .

; . 7.1.

7.1 .


d,

D,

,

,

,

307

35

80

21

33,2

18

310

50

110

27

65,8

36


. . =8÷12.

=8 .

l1=43,5 l2=48,5

l1= l2=50

, , l3, l3=65 .

8.


Ft=2456,96 , Fr=1134,9 ∙, Fa=387 ∙, Fb=1340,13 , l1=l2=50 , l3=65 , d1=79 , d2=281 .

 


8.1. Rx2 Xz.

Rx1=(1/2l1)(Fb(l3 + 2l1)+Ftl1),

z Rx2=(1/2l1)(-Fbl3 + Ft l1),

x : Rx1 +Rx2- Fb-Ft = 0,

Rx1

_ Fr _

_ 1 _ 2

Fa

Fb Ry1 Ry2

Ft



l3 l1 l1

Rx1=(1/20,05)(1340,13(0,065+20,05)+2456,960,05)=3439,69

Rx2=(1/20,05)(-13400,065 + 2456,96 0,05)= 357,48

: 3439,69 +357,48- 1340-2456,96=0

3797,17-3797,17=0

0=0

Yz , .. Fb .

Yz

Ry1 = 1/2l1 (Frl1+ Fad1/2),

Ry2 = 1/2l1 (Frl1- Fad1/2),

: -Ry1+Fr-Ry2=0,

Ry1 = 1/20,05(1134,90,05+ 3870,07/2)= 702,9

Ry2 = 1/20,05(1134,90,05- 3870,07/2) =432

: -702,9+1134,9-432=0

1134,9-1134,9=0

0=0


8.2. :


,

,

=3510,77

=560,73


8.3.


P = (xVPr1+yPa) KvKt ,

Pa=Fa=310 ͷ;

V =1 - ;

Kv = 1 - .

(. 9.19. 1..214.).

Pa/C ,

. 9.18. 1.212.

Pa/C=387/18000=0,0172 ≤ e=0,22

Pa/Pr1 -> e

Pa/Pr1=387/3510,77=0,11245; =0,3; x=0,56; y=1,45 ; . 9.18.

P = (0,5613510,77+1,45387) 11=1993,2296


8.4.


L = (C103 / )3 . . (8.2)

L = (33,2103 / 1993,2296)3=4621,06 . .

Lh = L106 / 60 n2, (8.3.)

n2 , /;

Lh , . .;

L - , . .

Lh = 4621,06106 / 60315=244,5103 . .>10000 . .

R4

-- --

Rx3 -- -- 4


Ry3 Rx4

l2 l2


z


x


8.5. xZ


Rx3 = Rx4 = Ft/2,

Rx3 = Rx4 =2456,96/2=1228,48

yZ:

Ry3 = 1/2l2(-Frl2 + Fa d2/2),

Ry4 = 1/2l2(Frl2 + Fa d2/2),

: -Ry4 Fr + Ry4 = 0,

Ry3 = (1/20,05)(-1134,90,05+3870,25/2)=-86,2

Ry4 = (1/20,05)(1134,90,05+3870,25/2)= 1053,7

: -Ry3 - Fr + Ry4=0

86,2-1134,9+1053,7=0

1134,9-1134,9=0

0=0


8.6. :


,

,

=1105,66

=1361

P = (xVPr4+yPa) KvKt ,

Pa/C=387/36000=0,0086 ≤ e=0,22

Pa/Pr4 -> e

Pa/Pr4=387/1361=0,227 =0,38; x=0,56; y=1,15; . 9.18.

P = (0,5611361+1,15387) 11=1118,66

8.7. :


L = (C103 / )3 . .

L = (65,8103 / 1118,66)3=203,508103 . .

Lh = L106 / 60 n3,

n3 - /. .

Lh = 203,508106 / 60 88= 38543,2 . .

9.

 

9.1. 23360 78 (. 9.1, 24071 80 .9.2.)


- 45 .

:

b×h=8×7 ; t1=4 ; t2=3,3 ; d=30 ; L=53 ; 0,25×45.

:

b×h=14×9 ; t1=5,5 ; t2=3,8 ; d=45 ; L=65 ; 0,3×45.

:

b×h=16×10 ; t1=6 ; t2=3,8 ; d=55 ; L=40 ; 0,35×45.


9.2.


G = 2 /d(h-t1)(L-b) ≤ {G}, (9.1)

G - , ;

- , ͷ;

d - , ;

h - , ;

L , ;

, .

- {G} = 100 ÷ 120;

- {G} = 50 ÷ 70 .

: {G}=70 ;

{G}=120 .

:

b×h=8×7 ; t1=4 ; t2=3,3 ; d=30 ; L=53 ; 0,25×45

( -15).

G = 21/d (h-t1)(L-b) , (9.2)

G = 278,5103/30(7-4)(53-8)=157103/4050=38,76 <{G}

38,76 <70


9.3.


b×h=14×9 ; t1=5,5 ; t2=3,8 ; d=45 ; L=65 ; 0,3×45.

:

G = 23/d (h-t1)(L-b); (9.3)

( -20).

G = 2259,553103/45 (9-5,5)(65-14)=519,106103 /8032,5=64,62 <{G}

64,62 <70


9.4. :


b×h=16×10 ; t1=6 ; t2=3,8 ; d=55 ; L=40 ; 0,35×45.

G=22/d (h-t1)(L-b) <{G}, (9.4)

( )

G=2367,42103/55 (10-6)(40-16)=529,7103/5280=100,32 < {G}

100,32 < 120

10.


10.1. () S () {S}

S≥ {S}=25 .3 . 161

Mx, My, Mk,Ft,Fa Ry4

Ry3


Rx3


L3

Fr



L2

Rx4


L2


+




y




MxB

+




MxB


M =2





+













My






Mx


Mk

=0,

= =Rx3L2,

MyC=0.

= =1105,50,05 =55,275 ͷ

MxA=0,

MxB = Ry3L2,

MxB = Ry4 L2,

MxC=0,

M=T2.

MxB =86,2 0,05=-0,945 ͷ

MxB =1053,70,05=39,695 ͷ

M=T2=367,42ͷ


10.2.


- 45 (. 3.3. 1 . 34

G = 570 )

G-1 ≈ 0,43G, (10.1.)

G-1 ≈ 0,43570=245,1


10.3.


τ-1 ≈ 0,58G-1, (10.2.)

, ()

τ-1 ≈ 0,58245,1=142,158

d =55

. 10.1. .1 G ≈1,6; Kτ≈1,5;

. 10.1. .1 εG ≈0,82; ετ≈0,7;

1. 313 φG≈0,15 ; φτ≈0,1.

2=264,85 H


10.4. :


=,

===68,05 ͷ

( d =55 , b =16 , t1=6 ; . 10.5. )

W =πd3 / 16 t1(d-t1)2 / 2d, (10.3.)

W , ;

d , .

W =3,14553 / 16 166(55-6)2 / 255=30555,7 3

W = πd3/ 32-t1(d-t1)2 /2d,

W = 3,14553/ 32-166(55-6)2 /255=14230 3


10.5.

 

τv = τm= T2/2W , (10.4.)

τv = 367,42103/230555,7=4,33

Gv= / W , (10.5.)

Gv=68,05103 /14,23103=4,78

Gm = 0

10.6.


, (10.6)

=26,3


10.7.


, (10.7)

=14,63


10.8.


>[S]=2,5, (10.8)

===12,787>2,5

11.


- 21424-75-

.


11.1.


=kp3,

- , ͷ;

kp=1,251,5- .

3- , ͷ.

=1,3259,553=337 ͷ


11.2. 21424-75 [T]=500 ͷ; d=45 ;

D=170 ; dn=18 ; =36


11.3.


G= Ft/S= Ft/dn ≤[G],

Ft- , , .

Ft=T/ 0,5Dz,

[G]=2,0 .

Ft=337/ 0,517010-36=660,8

G=660,8/1836=1,02

G≤[G]

1,02 ≤2

12.

 

H7/6 25347-82.

k6.

H7.

H7.

, H8.

H7.

13.

, , 10 . V 0,25 3 1 .

V = 0,25N, (13.1)

V - , 3;

N - , .

V = 0,253=0,75 3

600 υ=1,155 / 3410-3 -40

-24 21150-75; -40 +130; 180.

14.


.

, :

Ø                , 80-1000;

Ø                BxHxL=161040 ;

Ø                , , .

, . ; , .

, , .

, . ( ) .

14965, .

.

; .

, .


1.                 .. - .1 . 1980.

2.                 .. . 1980.

3.                 .., .., .. . . . 1988.

4.                 .. . . 1991.

5.                 2.104-68 .

6.                 2. 105-95 .

7.                 2. 306-68 .

8.                 2. 316-68 , .

9.                 .. , 2006.



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